NEW 2nd EDITION
Not many books on the subject of automotive differentials are available to do-it-yourselfers, and ever since the first edition of this best-selling book sold out a while back, people have been waiting for this 2nd edition to become available.
Packed with excellent information and tips by Randy Laymen, CEO of Randy's Ring and Pinion--a distributor of differential parts--and Jim Allen, a factory-trained Land Rover technician and author of more than 1,500 magazine articles and seven books, Differentials Identification, Restoration & Repair 2nd Edition, has become a bible of sorts to do-it-yourselfers and professional mechanics alike.
In addition to the easy-to-follow text, the book features more than 500 sharp and detailed b&w photos and illustrations that will assist the reader in identifying their differential, as well as with teardown and reassembly.
It is also worth mentioning that besides the thorough coverage of OEM units, the book also includes information about aftermarket differentials, making it a must-have for the serious enthusiast or shop owner. All information is presented in an easy-to-follow format that will allow the average do-it-yourselfer to perform the work at home on any common-style axle.
So, if you are looking for the definitive guide to differentials for 1960-on American-built vehicles, Differentials Identification, Restoration & Repair 2nd Edition, is the book you'll want to have.
However, as comprehensive as this manual is, front-wheel drive and transaxles are not covered. Independent suspensions of rear-drive 4x2s and the front or rear of 4x4s are part of the discussion, but only the parts that transmit torque. These include the differential and possibly the CV-type axle shafts. Solid front axles of 4x4s are covered in detail.
BASIC SEAL INSPECTION
Seldom, if ever, will you remove a seal and reuse it. For one thing, they are often difficult to remove without damage. For another, a new one is cheap insurance. Even though you'll almost always throw an old seal away, inspect it carefully, especially if it failed. If you've had repeated seal failures, eight out of ten times, the reason is improper installation. Read the nearby sidebar on 10 steps to seal installation.
4/2/1 - KNUCKLE REPAIR | CLOSED KNUCKLE AXLES
Beyond dented or bent seal housings, bad sealing surfaces and gouged bores, some of the common failure modes for seals are a shaft running out of round or misaligned, excessive internal axle pressure, dirt and grit damage. Sometimes excessive heat is a problem.
An out-of-round or misaligned seal will manifest in the seal lip being heavily worn in just one area. Excessive pressure will force the seal against the rotating surface and wear the lip off in a short period of time.
Grit will chew up a seal much like it was sandblasted. Heat will cause tiny cracks in the lip and make the material hard and brittle, sometime even appearing melted.
Applications: Almost all front axles up to about 1970 and a few later ones.
TABLE of CONTENTS:
- Preliminary Operations. Remove wheels. Some closed-knuckle axles are filled with oil and a few have a drain plug. If so, drain the oil into a pan.
- Remove the locking hub (see 4/2/5), brake drum/hub or brake disc/hub (see 4/2/4).
- Remove the brake backing plate or dust shield. The bolts that hold this on run through to the steering knuckle.
- The spindle comes off next. In this case, the technician is using a special adapter tool on a slide hammer to remove it, but usually a few raps, up, down and from the side, from a plastic hammer are all that's required.
- This old Jeep FC is a real chocolate mess. Remove the axle shaft and inspect the universal joints, splines, bearing and seal surfaces for wear or damage. See 4/2/3 for info on replacing a front axle u-joint.
- Remove the knuckle oil seals. There are eight to twelve bolts on the backside that hold a metal retainer. Under that is a felt or cork seal and under that a split rubber seal. Oil will leak out at this point.
- Disconnect the tie rod from the knuckle.
- Remove the lower king pin and bearings and remove the knuckle. The pins are secured by four bolts. Sometimes there are bent lock tabs holding them secure that you will have to bend back.
You can usually lift the knuckle off the upper part, complete with the upper bearing, by pulling the lower part out and lifting up. If this is not possible, simply remove the upper pin as well.
Sometimes the knuckles are marked "L" and "R" according to which side they are on. If they are not, save yourself some confusion later by labeling them as you remove them.
CHAPTER 1: AXLE 101
What is a Drive Axle? | Understanding Gearing | What've I Got? (Determining Axle Ratios) | The Flow of Torque and Differential Operation | Construction Details and Types | Axle Capacity | Semi-Float vs Full-Float | Axle Bearing Types | Axle Shaft Types | Integral vs Removable Carriers | Front Axles | Independent Suspension Drive Axles | Housing Construction Details | Axle Shaft Construction Details | Ring and Pinion Construction Details | Differential Construction Details | Common Steel Groups for Axles | Metal Treatments | In the Beggining... | Early Differentials | Early Axle Designs | Early Lockers and Limited Slips
CHAPTER 2: AXLE ENCYCLOPEDIA
The OE Axle | The Aftermarket Axle | Axle Identification by the Numbers | Determining Axle Ratios and Traction Aids | When All Else Fails | Chrysler Codes | Dana Codes | Ford Codes | GM Codes | Jeep/AMC Codes | Toyota Codes
CHAPTER 3: BUILDING BLOCKS
- AAM 9.25
- AAM 10.50 (new style)/11.50 Rear
- AMC-20 Rear
- Chrysler 7.9/8.0 IFS
- Chrysler 7.25 IFS, Chrysler 7.25 Rear
- Chrysler 8.25/8.375 Rear, Chrysler 9.25 Rear
- Chrysler 8.75
- Chrysler 9.63 Dropout
- Dana 28TTB/35 TTB/35 IFS
- Dana 25/27/30 Front, Dana 30 IFS
- Dana 44 Front, Beam & TTB
- Dana 50 Beam & TTB
- Dana 60, Dana 70 Front
- Dana 23, 27 and 30 Rear
- Dana 35/AMC-15 Rear
- Dana 36 ICA Rear/Dana 44 ICA Rear
- Dana 41, 44 and 45 Rear
- Dana 53/Dana 60/Dana 61 Rear
- Dana 70 Rear
- Dana 80 Rear
- Ford 7.5
- Ford 8.8
- Ford 8.0/9.0/9.38 Dropout
- Ford 9.75/10.25/10.50
- GM 7.25/8.25/9.25 IFS
- GM 8.5 Front
- GM 6.5/7.5/7.63/8.0
- GM 8.40 Rear Dropout
- GM 8.2/8.5/8.6 Rear
- GM 8.875 Car/Truck Rear
- GM 9.375 Rear Dropout
- GM 9.5 Rear
- GM H-052, H-072 Rear Dropouts
- GM 10.50 Rear
- Buick, Olds, Pontiac 8.2, 8.5, 9.30
- Samurai/Sidekick 6.90 Front/Rear Dropout
- Toyota 9.5 Dropout Front and Rear
- Toyota 7.5 IFS, 8.0 and 8.25-inch Dropouts, Front and Rear
Tools | The Right Tools | Work Environment | Safety | Cleanliness | Light | Reasonable Comfort | Shop Supplies | Cleaning Materials | Cleaning Standards | Lubricants | Gear Oil Grades | Thread Lockers | Sealants | Nuts and Bolts | Ordering Parts | Break-In of New Parts | Bearings | Bearing Anatomy | Bearing Preload | Bearing Maintenance | Removing and Replacing Bearings | Bearing Inspection | Bearing Adjustments | Seals | Seal Anatomy | Basic Seal Inspection | 10 Steps to Successful Seal Installation
CHAPTER 4: LIGHT REPAIRS
Seals & Related Repairs | Replacing Pinion Seal and/or Pinion Yoke | Sealing a Diff Cover | Installing a Speedi-Sleeve | Front Axle Repairs and Service | Knuckle Repair: Closed Knuckle Axles | Knuckle Repair: Open Knuckle Axles | Replacing an Axle U-Joint | Autopsy: Inspecting Front Axle Shafts and U-Joints | Repacking Front Wheel Bearings | Locking Hub R&R | Live Spindle Axle & Bearing R&R | Axle Shafts, Bearings & Seals | C-Clip Axle | Pressed Bearing Flanged Axle | Full-Float Axle | Pressed Bearing Tapered Axle | Packing a Pressed Axle Bearing | Chrysler Adjustable Wheel Bearing Axles
CHAPTER 5: MAJOR REPAIRS
Major Repairs | What to Replace? | Disassembly, Cleaning and Inspection | The Bad and the Ugly | Disassembly | Cleaning | Ring, Pinion and Carrier Operations | Differential Repair | Using the Randy's Ring & Pinion Bearing Removal Tool | Ring & Pinion Replacement | Pinion Installation | Using a Pinion Depth Tool | Measuring Pinion Bearing Preload | Carrier Assembly | Using Randy's Ring & Pinion Case Spreader | Common Carrier Bearing Preload Shim Thicknesses | Reading and Adjusting the Ring & Pinion Tooth Pattern | Acceptable Patterns | Pinion is Too Close | Pinion is Too Far Away | Using a Dial Indicator | IFS Front Diffs | GM 8.25
CHAPTER 6: MODIFICATION 101
Why Modify? | Preplanning Modifications | Gearing | Gearing for Acceleration Performance | Acceleration vs Freeway Cruising | Gearing for Top Speed | Gearing for Towing Performance | Choosing a Towing Ratio | Gearing for 4x4/Trail Performance | Gearing for Economy | Building for Strength | Torque Capacity | Anatomy of a Strong Axle Shaft | Load Capacity | Street Performance Axle Buildup Tips | Axle Shaft Strength Chart | U-Joints 101 | Four Wheeling Axle Buildup Tips | 4x4 Front Axle Tips, Solid Axles | Super Strength U-Joints | 4x4 Front Axle Tips, IFS Axles | 4x4 Front Axle Tips, TTB Axles | Performance Traction | Limited Slips | Plate Clutch Type Limited Slip | Cone Clutch Type Limited Slips | Gear Type Limited Slips | Limited Slip Characteristics Evaluation | Lockers | Automatic Lockers | On-Demand Lockers | Spools: Applications, Traction, Strength and Manners Rating | Traction Aid Evaluations | Tractech: Detroit Locker, Truetrac, E-Z Locker, Electrac | Auburn: High Performance Series, Pro Series, ECTED | ARB: ARB Air Locker | Power Trax: Lock Right Locker, No Slip Locker | Eaton: Eaton Posi (New Generation), Eaton E-Locker | Dana: Powr-Lok Limited Slip, Trac-Lok Limited Slip | Ford/Visteon: Traction Lok | Torsen: T-1 | Ox Brand: Ox Locker | Yukon Gear: DuraGrip | DuraGrip TL, Yukon Performance Powr-Lok | Other Lockers/Limited Slips: KAM Differentials Limited, Quaiffe, Indianapolis Custom Products | Stuff You Might Not Have Thought About
CHAPTER 7: UPGRADE POTPOURRI
Traction Aid Overhaul and Upgrade | Checking Limited Slip Operation: Dana Powr-Lok Overhaul/Upgrade, Dana Trac-Lok Overhaul/Upgrade, Eaton Posi Overhaul/Upgrade, Ford Traction-Lok and Yukon DuraGrip T/L Overhaul | Locker and Limited Slip Installation: ARB Air Locker, Power Trax Lock Right Installation, Full Spool Installation, Mini-Spool Installation | A Selection of Improvements: Cover Girdle, Crush Sleeve Eliminator, AMC-20 One-Piece Axle, Yukon Super Joints | Axle Swapping Tips | Grinding and Deburring | Speedometer Correction
Appendix 1: Glossary (Gearhead Dictionary) | Appendix 2: Formulas
Subject: Transportation: Automotive: Driveline Systems: Differential identification, restoration and repair.ISBN-10: 1424326613 | ISBN-13: 9781424326617 | Randy's Ring & Pinion 26617
External Links: Differential (mechanical device) from Wikipedia. Randy's Ring & Pinion official website.